Lies 18 miles (29km) inland from the southern Java coast and near Mount Merapi (9,551 feet /2,911m). in 7th century the locality formed part of the Buddhist kingdom of sailendras, which was contemporaneous with the Srivijaya Empire of Palembang (Sumatra). It was probably included in the later Kediri and Singosari Kingdom ruled the region successively. At the end of the 13th century the Hindu Majapahit Empire rose un eastern Java, an what is now Jogja passed under its rule.
In the early 16th century, central Java had two Muslim Kingdoms, Demak and Pajang,wich were incorporated into the powerful Muslim kingdom of Mataram by Senapati Ingalaga (reigned 1584-1601). The Dutch became established in the region in 1602.
After numerous conflicts, Mataram subdued the state of Surabaya in eastern Java in 1625 and gained general supremacy in the territory. In rebellion against Dutch intervention in Javanese politics, Sultan Hamungkubuwono I moved his court from Kota Gede to Jogjakarta. In Mataran in 1755 and renamed the town Jogja. The British captured Jogja in1811,and Sultan Hamengkubuwana II was deposed and exiled. In 1816 the Dutch repossessed the island of Java and 1830 Dutch colonial rule was firmly established in the sultanate.
Jogjakarta was capital of Indonesia, after the period of Japanese occupation during World War II, the Republic Indonesia was formed. The national capital was removed to Jogjakarta when the Dutch occupied Jakarta in 1946, it was moved back to Jakarta in 1950 upon independence, an Jogja was given the status of a special district in the Republic of Indonesia.
Jogjakarta Sultan Palace
Kraton or Jogja’s Sultan Palace with its grand and elegant Javanese architecture, lay in the center of the city. It was founded by Pangeran Mangkubumi I. He choose the right for the site of the building, right between Winongo River and Code River a swamp area that dried up then. The Sultan’s Palace stretches from the north to south. the front yard of the Sultan Palace is called Allun-All;un Utara ( North Square) and the back yard called Allun-Allun Selatan (South Square ). The design of this historical building demonstrates that the Palace, the obelisk (the Tugu, the column) and the mount Merapi positioned in one line. It is believed that the axis is blessed. In the-old times Sri Sultan is used to concentrated his mind long this axis before leading meeting, making decision or giving order to his people. Each part of the building has its own name. The Palace meeting is called Pagelaran. It is the place where the formal meeting of the Kratons’s officials are held. Manguntur Tangkil Hall is the place where the Sultan has his set. This hall is in Siti Hinggil, Siti means ground or land while Hinggil means high, so it called Siti Hinggil because the place where it built is higher than any other ground around it. It was once a tiny island on the swamp. The front gate is called Danupratopo. Two giants called Gupalo guards it. One is called Cingkorobolo and the other is Boloupoto. The two statues are perceived may protect the palace from any harm or evil.The main part of the Sultan is called Purworetno, aplce where the Sultan performes his duties. beside Purworetno there are twostory buidings callled Panti Sumbago. This biuding is the Sultan’s privates library. The building wher the the Sultan lives called Gedong Kuning
The palace was founded by the first Sultan, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono who fathered a line of Jogjakarta kings. Relevant to the name, the Sultan Palace has its own rules, self-governing systems and traditional custom that is still preserved up to the present. Lying in the center of Jogja city, this palace is the main tourist attraction in Jogja. The palace is now dwelling place of Sultan Hamengku Buwono X who is also the Governor of Jogjakarta special Region. As the palace of Jogjakarta kings, physical or non- physical, it has sacred symbol, completed with divinity, value, culture, philosophy, history and humanity. There are a museum displaying souvenirs from The Sultan’s guests especially from the a board called Souvenir Museum, as well as a museum of Batik collection and museum Wayang (puppet). Equally interesting the various forms of traditional art activities such as shadow puppets shows, classical dances and gamelan performances are still performed in the court and open to the public.
Know as Pasar Ngasem. It is located at the north side of Taman Sari. This market provides hundreds type of tropical birds. In Javanese culture, bird symbolize of men’s world. This is why, transaction of birds is quiet frequent at pasar Ngasem. Birds, which are available at Pasar Ngasem, are mostly chirping bird, such as perkutut, kenari, etc. Yet, there is also another species of racing speed flyers such as dove. This market also provides dogs, rabbits, snakes, and some others pets.
Tamansari Water castle is located on the street about 500 meters south of Jogjakarta Palace. Tamansari is a park, which once was a recreational place for the Sultan an the royal family. There were many facilities built in this complex including a bathing pol, man-made islands, an artificial lake, and floating mosque. Nowadays this park and castle is no more than a collection of ruins. Tamansari was built by Sultan HB I and has functioned as a royal recreational park until The Sultan HB III period. The remainder of the complex which can be seen are Gapura Panggung (the main entrance gate on the Eastside), Umbul Kawitan, (bathing pool), Pamuncar, Gapura Agung (the Western Gate), Sumur Gumuling, Plengkung Taman Segara, Pulau Kenanga and pulau Panembung.
This is drama dance has been performed for a very long time, by people around Prambanan Temple every full moon,. Ramayana is performed without dialogue, but dance and gamelan accompaniment only. The story was taken from the relief of Prambanan temple. And now, this ballet is regularly performed on the grand stage built by government in Prambanan compound and other place.
lied 30 km, northern side of Jogja, when the weather is clear, a spectacular sight of the panoramic view that covers the surrounding forest of Plawangan and Kaliurang, and rolling green countryside that fades into distant misty horizons of the blue Indian Ocean can be seen easily. It is better to do mount climbing during the dry season (April-September). There are two paths of mount climbing to the top of Merapi. The easier way is the north path, through Selo, Boyolali Center Java. The most difficult path is from Kinahrejo, (9 km from the mountaintop, but you will need around 8 hours to climb to the top due to difficult path)
Ratu Boko Heritage Site
At the complex of Ratu Boko heritage site, we can find variety inheritance of archaeological sites. Every structure is arranged in good harmony and surrounded by fence. There are many gates connecting the fence completed with stairs, terrace and trail. Besides those sacred buildings, there are also other building s like ponds and caves. The name Kraton given by the local community around that area indicates that Ratu Boko site was the living area and the center of government as well at that time. Ratu Boko site was built by Rakai Panangkaran in 792 AD and called Abhayagiri Wihara. Rakai Panangkaran built Abhayagiri Wihara after resigning from his throne. He ruled from 764 784 AD and than continued by his successor who is in fact his son, Rakai Panarabwan. Fifty three year lather (856 AD), the name Ratu Boko had changed into Kraton Walaing which proclaimed by Rakai Walaing pu Kumbhayoni who recognized as the Vasal King. He ruled from 856-863 AD and called himself as the descend of Rakai I Hulu. Some opinion said that the process of renovation could become attraction for the tourists, because it is a rare occasion for tourists to see the renovation process lively.